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Table of contents
- A Tour of the Senses: How Your Brain Interprets the World
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- A TOUR OF THE SENSES: How Your Brain Interprets the World
- A Tour of the Senses: How Your Brain Interprets the World - John M. Henshaw - Google книги
In another, you push a button to see the vivid, fluorescent colors of a flower as a bee would see them. Our Senses opens for a weekend of Member previews beginning on Friday, November 17, and will be on view to the public from Monday, November 20, , through Sunday, January 6, Human senses, and human brains, adapted over millennia to help our ancestors survive by shaping and enhancing their perceptions of everyday encounters.
Human sensory perceptions may seem like windows into the outside world, but actual perceptions are created in the brain. DeSalle has overseen several major exhibitions, including Brain: The Inside Story , which explored how the human brain uses molecular, chemical, and electrical signals to interpret information and learn at every stage of life, which carry into this exhibition. Visitors walk through 11 interactive galleries designed to test perceptions and illuminate the complex relationships between sensing and perceiving.
A musical soundtrack customized for each space enhances the immersive experience. The exhibit is laid out in a way that will particularly appeal to younger people — they will particularly love the puzzles and illusions — providing an understanding of how they perceive the world that will be foundational to learning.
There is a minute live presentation that really brings home the message: we have more than five senses, the ones that we use to navigate the outer world and let us know where we are in space. We also have inner senses that monitor when we are hungry, thirsty, tired, oxygen-deprived and need to breathe. Every animal — even single-cell animals — have some senses and many animals have senses that are superior to humans, humans are the only animal that we know of that can imagine and communicate.
Only humans can create imaginary sensory perception and share through language. We can imagine a sensory experience and make it real: create food, fashion, art, architecture, machines, melody and manuscripts. He points to the fact that single-cell animals have a primordial sense of touch, they can determine where they are in space. Human bodies in their living form generate heat by metabolism, muscle contraction, intake of food, and non-shivering thermogenesis neonate only ; whereas body heat is lost from the body through the processes of radiation, convection, conduction and evaporation Campbell Humans are homeothermic so they try to maintain a constant body temperature through physiological adjustments, but body temperature still varies dynamically due to human body conditions e.
Capturing the human body temperature is often achieved through remote sensing based on an IR Infra-Red camera or on-body direct thermal sensing. Images showing the thermal maps of the human bodies are therefore captured by IR camera which is mentioned in Sect. Facial signatures reflecting body conditions due to the fluctuations in skin temperature are being remotely captured by many airports for mass screening of passengers for infection quarantine, e.
Wearable thermal sensors capture body temperature by direct skin contact.
Body odour is the result of the emission of various VOCs volatile organic compounds from the human body, and is normally carried by the warm-air current of the personal micro-climate to the outside world see Sect. Research has found that some VOCs are the reflection of certain diseases which change the human metabolic condition, thus the detection of VOCs signature applies to health care monitoring Li ; Shirasu and Touhara Ambient capturing of human body odour is achieved through the air circulation in an open space, VOCs are collected from the circulated air and detected by gas detection systems.
Chemical sensors are used for detection of pre-defined VOCs and gas chromatography GC together with Mass Spectrometry are applicable to generic chemical analysis of VOCs based on mixture separation techniques. Personal body odour detection is achieved by wearable detector such as eNose electronic noise which normally consists of chemical sensors with their electrical characteristics changed once the coated chemically sensitive materials e.
The alleged ability to communicate with people far away or even see and talk to dead people. Capturing of 3D images with facial and body parts details must be done when the subject person is still alive for a computer graphics to simulate real time body movement on a 3D display. An enhancement of communication can be achieved by recording the temperature or pressure for hugging so the person wearing a haptic jacket can feel the hugging from people far away or the dead people. The alleged ability to hear sound or speech that is not audible to normal humans.
Detection of speech from noisy environment or from a long distance can be achieved through facial feature recognition and the recognised speech is transferred to the subject listener. Camera from remote site sends images to the subject person through the Internet, and this is already a common technology nowadays. Example of informing a person about bad traffic condition or bad weather condition after a prediction of human behaviour through activity recognition using motion detection and localisation techniques.
A Tour of the Senses: How Your Brain Interprets the World
Probabilistic algorithm is used to choose the most probable result. The alleged ability to communicate with other humans through their mind instead of normal sensory system. Wearable tactile display for transferring special haptic codes from another party Ishizuka and Miki Communication between two parties far apart can be accomplished by collection speech from each person through silent speech interface, and the compressed and encoded speech is transferred through the Internet.
Finally the speech is silently acquired by another party through personalised sound interface ultrasound self-demodulation or sensory substitution through tactile display. Humans do possess more than five senses according to numerous research as briefly discussed in previous Sect. Parapsychology has been an active research topic for decades exploring those paranormal activities and psychic abilities for human beings.
Many institutions and organisations all over the world under the umbrella of parapsychology or extrasensory perception ESP are getting involved with continuous publications of research papers and empirical reports gaining controversial results. This paper will not comment or criticise any parapsychology area, however, the application of DUIs to enable what may be seen to be paranormal activities or psychic abilities for normal human being catches our attention.
Ubiquitous computing, IoT and Big Data through cloud computing already provide immediate tools for data-fusion and sensor-fusion which allow humans to interact with the world easily, for example, humans can check the road traffic five blocks away with the estimated time to get there, or see the real-time image of a street in New York from London and locate a particular face, or estimate a day weather forecast with high accuracy through computational intelligence and past history.
Accessing all these complicated technologies naturally through DUIs can seamlessly merge humans with the fusion of data and sensors, and ultimately DUIs can turn on the so-called Sixth Sense through simulation. Table 2 shows some examples of applying DUIs for enabling normal human to gain common psychic abilities which are generally described as the Sixth Sense. Super sense in this work refers to the extension of human senses which enhances temporal, spatial, and most importantly contextual senses. IoT is shaping the Internet into a global nervous system 6 , 7 , thus the growing number of ubiquitous sensors, based on Context Awareness technology, enables local and remote contextual sensing anywhere in the world when an Internet connection is reached.
This huge IoT nervous system is then the sensory extension for each connected individual. Context awareness technology in ubiquitous computing not only provides a platform for mobile computing to be location sensitive, but also enables the mobile devices to be smart. Emotion promotes behavioural and physiological responses by activating the autonomic nervous system Kreibig , and at the same time the experience or emotional memory is encoded onto the neural circuits in the brain through the limbic system LaBar and Cabeza CS is the context of the emotional experience which is usually stimulated by an unconditioned stimulus US.
However research on sensing the CS for emotional memories is not obvious. Sensing and extracting the ground-truth contextual datasets for training the prediction function is equally important. The number of users and the number of computers in the Ubiquitous Computing world have reached an unprecedented scale, and the associated interactions between multiple users and multiple computers at the same time become a profound issue requiring a novel HCI solution.
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A menu driven approach HCI requiring operational training will be ineffective to non-technical users, thus NUIs have been promoted as the future interface for Ubiquitous Computing, where users interact with computers based on intuition. Some NUI, especially gesture NUIs are criticised as artificial naturality since they replace tangible interface devices such as mouse and keyboard with gestures in a menu driven approach. DUI, based on its unnoticeable nature, is a logical provision for natural HCI to intuitively interact with non-technical users without training.
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DUI can pave a new path for NUI to be more natural by hiding the interface from the users and target to interact with them through contents directly based on natural human inputs and outputs. The application of DUIs not only provides intuitive natural human interaction, but also extends human senses through context awareness technology.
Getting to know details about human inputs through stimulus to sensation to perception, and human outputs through the brain to body responses are necessary required research for successful DUIs for ubiquitous computing. Research has shown that there are human responses not controlled by the conscious mind, such as pulse rate, breathing rate, body temperature, or even certain facial and gesture expressions; and these responses are classified as behavioural and physiological responses promoted by human emotions.
Emotional memory is first encoded to the neural circuits through an emotional event stimulated by conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Towards disappearing user interfaces for ubiquitous computing: human enhancement from sixth sense to super senses.
A TOUR OF THE SENSES: How Your Brain Interprets the World
Hui R. Open Access. First Online: 16 September Dedicated organs sense the world outside human bodies where sensory transduction produces the corresponding electrical signals and activates the human brain for perception Henshaw Figure 1 shows a typical illustration of a human sensory system and it can be seen that human perception based on the human brain is the result of decoding the sensation signals which are activated by the stimuli coming from the outside world through the basic sensory organs, while human outputs, which will be discussed in Sect.
Open image in new window. DUIs capture human outputs based on monitoring human body activities: body parts movements, body sound generation, body temperature variations, body odour emissions, and the dynamic physiological parameters. The disappearing nature of DUI avoids step-by-step manual driven human interaction, and its focus is set on interfacing with the contents which are the actions generally derived from human perceptions Lim Discussion in the following subsections concentrates mostly on the DUI front end which is the capturing of human activities, and various data or contents capturing technologies are reviewed according to the nature of the activities.
The corresponding feature extraction is application specific which depends on the methodology for activity detection e. Classification and prediction normally adopt probabilistic methods, such as HMM hidden Markov models or Bayesian network or ANN artificial neural network , to choose the most possible result according to the extracted features and the past history, and generally supervised or unsupervised training will be followed to increase the prediction accuracy.
Four basic types of human outputs are discussed in the following sub-sections together with the explanation of the different capturing methods and technologies. A summary of human outputs and the corresponding capturing techniques is depicted in Fig.
Table 1 Cross references for human computer interaction map. Physiological parameters are mostly presented as biosignals for monitoring human body functions, for examples the primary vital signs are body temperature, blood pressure, heart beat, breathing rate which can be captured by DUIs mentioned in the previous sections through indirect methods.
Measurement of physiological responses are essential for recognising human emotions which activate or deactivate the human autonomic nervous system Kreibig Active research in Psychophysiology has been proposing effective measuring methods to identify different feelings e. However, discussion of these physiological measurements is too broad to be included this paper.
Probabilistic algorithm is used to choose the most probable result Telepathy The alleged ability to communicate with other humans through their mind instead of normal sensory system 1. IEEE International, pp — IEEE, pp 1—6. Alberth W Coupling an electronic skin tattoo to a mobile communication device. United States Patent Application No.
US :A1 Google Scholar. Bazrafkan S, Kar A, Costache C Eye gaze for consumer electronics: controlling and commanding intelligent systems. Bhowmik AK In: SID symposium digest of technical papers, vol 44, no 1, pp — In: Radar conference Radar , international, pp 1—6. In: Proceedings of the 11th conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, ACM, pp 1—3. Cagniard B, Murphy NP Affective taste responses in the presence of reward- and aversion-conditioned stimuli and their relationship to psychomotor sensitization and place conditioning.http://shop.reborn.mk/lobos-a-lo-largo-vanoola.php
A Tour of the Senses: How Your Brain Interprets the World - John M. Henshaw - Google книги
Behav Brain Res — Campbell I Body temperature and its regulation. Anaesth Intensive Care Med 12 6 — Choi H, Mody CC The long history of molecular electronics: microelectronics origins of nanotechnology. Soc Stud Sci 39 1 — Int J Artif Intell Educ 25 4 — Expert Syst Appl — Hum Comput Interact 16 2—4 — Dourish P, Bell G Divining a digital future: mess and mythology in ubiquitous computing. Sci Am 1 — Dubois A, Charpillet F A gait analysis method based on a depth camera for fall prevention.
IET Biom 4 2 — Sens Actuators B Chem — In: Proceedings of the 1st augmented human international conference, ACM, pp 1—6. But this is a simplification. We also have sensory systems to inform us of the position of our bodies and parts of our bodies , visceral sensations, temperature, and pain, for example. All are apparently active at birth, for example, although they may remain in a rudimentary state for weeks or months and continue to develop through childhood and adolescence.
All are laid out along the same basic neural plan: a sense organ that turns physical phenomena like light, sound, or pressure into electrical impulses, and bundles of nerve fibers to carry these impulses to the brain. Sensory data generally pass through the thalamus, a kind of switching station atop the brain stem, en route to dedicated areas of the cortex designed to process them—the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe for hearing, for example, the visual cortex in the occipital lobe for sight.